" Animal Kingdom Chapter 4 CBSE Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions, pdf, Videos, Notes, Question Bank, IIT, JEE



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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 PUC Biology Chapter 4 - Animal Kingdom

Phylum – Ctenophora, jellyfish

The National Council of Education Research and Training (NCERT) (officaial wesite www.ncert.nic.in) sets the curriculum for all schools that follow the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)(officaial wesite cbse.nic.in) across the nation. NCERT solutions for class 11 Biology Chapter 4 - Animal Kingdom has been written to help students understand all the content under Chapter 4 - Animal Kingdom in the textbooks prescribed by NCERT and as per the syllabus. The class 11 Biology NCERT solutions help students solve the exercises given in the textbooks and get good marks in their board exam. The book is structured in a step-by-step and logical manner, which allows the student to understand the concepts easily.
Class 11 Biology NCERT solutions for Chapter 4 - Animal Kingdom covers Topics such as BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION, Levels of Organisation, Symmetry, Diploblastic and Triploblastic Organisation, Coelom, Segmentation, Notochord, CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS, Phylum – Porifera, Phylum – Coelenterata (Cnidaria), Phylum – Ctenophora, Phylum – Platyhelminthes, Phylum – Aschelminthes, Phylum – Annelida, Phylum – Arthropoda, Phylum – Mollusca, Phylum – Echinodermata, Phylum – Hemichordata and Phylum – Chordata.


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Chapter 4 - Animal Kingdom


4.1 Basis of Classification

4.1.1 Levels of Organisation

cellular level of organisation: For example, in sponges,the cells are arranged as loose cell aggregates, i.e., they exhibit cellular level of organisation.
Tissue level of organisation: the cells performing the same function are arranged into tissues are called as Tissue level of organisation.
Organ level of organisation: members of Platyhelminthes and other higher phyla where tissues are grouped together to form organs, each specialised for a particular function.

4.1.2 Symmetry

Symmetry

Phylum – Ctenophora, jellyfish

Animals can be categorised on the basis of their symmetry. radial symmetry: When any plane passing through the central axis of the body divides the organism into two identical halves, it is called radial symmetry.

4.1.3 Diploblastic and Triploblastic Organisation

Diploblastic animals:Animals in which the cells are arranged in two embryonic layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm, are called diploblastic animals, e.g., coelenterates.
triploblastic animals: animals in which the developing embryo has a third germinal layer, mesoderm, in between the ectoderm and endoderm, are called triploblastic animals.

4.1.4 Coelom

Presence or absence of a cavity between the body wall and the gut wall is very important in classification. The body cavity, which is lined by mesoderm is called coelom.
pseudocoelomates: the animals which possessing a body cavity called pseudocoelom are called pseudocoelomates, e.g.,aschelminthes.
acoelomates: The animals in which the body cavity is absent are called acoelomates, e.g., platyhelminthes

4.1.5 Segmentation

In some animals, the body is externally and internally divided into segments with a serial repetition of at least some organs. the body shows this pattern called metameric segmentation and the phenomenon is known as metamerism.Example: earthworm

4.1.6 Notochord

Notochord is a mesodermally derived rod-like structure formed on the dorsal side during embryonic development in some animals. Animals with notochord are called chordates and those animals which do not form this structure are called non-chordates, e.g., porifera to echinoderms.

4.2 Classification of Animals

The broad classification of Animalia based on common fundamental features.

4.2.1 Phylum – Porifera

Members of this phylum are commonly known as sponges. They are generally marine and mostly asymmetrical animals.

4.2.2 Phylum – Coelenterata (Cnidaria)

They are aquatic, mostly marine, sessile or free-swimming, radially symmetrical animals

4.4.3 Phylum – Ctenophora

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Phylum – Ctenophora, jellyfish

Ctenophores, commonly known as sea walnuts or comb jellies are exclusively marine, radially symmetrical, diploblastic organisms with tissue level of organisation. The body bears eight external rows of ciliated comb plates, which help in locomotion. Digestion is both extracellular and intracellular.
Bioluminescence: (the property of a living organism to emit light) is well-marked in ctenophores.

4.4.4 Phylum – Platyhelminthes

They have dorso-ventrally flattened body, hence are called flatworms.These are mostly endoparasites found in animals including human beings. Flatworms are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and acoelomate animals with organ level of organisation. Hooks and suckers are present in the parasitic forms.

4.4.5 Phylum – Aschelminthes

The body of the aschelminthes is circular in cross-section, hence, the name roundworms.Alimentary canal is complete with a welldeveloped muscular pharynx. An excretory tube removes body wastes from the body cavity through the excretory pore.

4.4.6 Phylum – Annelida

They are triploblastic, metamerically segmented and coelomate animals. Their body surface is distinctly marked out into segments or metameres and, hence, the phylum name Annelida (Latin, annulus : little ring).

4.2.7 Phylum – Arthropoda

This is the largest phylum of Animalia which includes insects. Over two-thirds of all named species on earth are arthropods.







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